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亚博棋牌有保障-这才是美国最潮女法官的真面目



发布日期:2021-02-20 11:28:01 发布者:Admin5  点击率:

Ruth Bader Ginsburg (Ruth Bader Ginsburg) was born in 1933 and was hospitalized in July 2020 due to a malaise. He died on September 18, making him the second female Supreme Court justice in the history of the United States.

露丝·巴德·金斯堡(Ruth Bader Ginsburg)出生于1933年,由于身体不适,于2020年7月住院。他于9月18日去世,使他成为美国历史上第二位最高法院女法官。

She was nominated by Clinton in 1993. She is a judge who often explodes "Golden Sentences" and is a national icon. She is liberal and firmly supports women's abortion rights. From 1970 to 1980, she participated in more than 300 sex discrimination cases, including 6 One went to the Supreme Court and won 5 of them, successfully expanding the scope of application of the 14 amendments to the Constitution, from prohibiting racial discrimination to prohibiting gender discrimination.

她于1993年被克林顿提名。她是一位经常爆发“金句”的法官,并且是国家的偶像。她是自由主义者,坚决支持妇女的堕胎权。从1970年到1980年,她参与了300多个性别歧视案件,其中有6宗进入最高法院并赢得了5宗,成功地将《宪法》 14项修正案的适用范围从禁止种族歧视改为禁止性别歧视。

In 2005, Ginsberg frequently used the form of reading out "dissent books" in court to express his different opinions. She publicly announced a leftist opinion with the majority of the justices and was called a "warrior" by people including Trump.

2005年,金斯伯格经常以在法庭上宣读“异议书”的形式表达他的不同意见。她公开宣布了与大多数法官的左翼观点,并被包括特朗普在内的人们称为“战士”。

But Ginsberg's personality is actually not that hot, relatively calm, and even a little taciturn and shy. She has been advocating for women's rights all her life, but she is by no means a radical feminist. She never cared whether others were entangled in calling her "madam" or "madam".

但是金斯伯格的性格实际上并不那么热烈,相对沉着,甚至有些沉默寡言和害羞。她一生都在倡导妇女权利,但她绝不是激进的女权主义者。她从不关心别人是否被她的“女士”或“女士”缠住。

She fights for equal rights and not privileges for women, so she said:

她为妇女争取平等权利而不是特权而战,因此她说:

In fact, in addition to fighting for the rights of women,

实际上,除了争取妇女权利外,

The Stephen Wiesenfeld case she participated in in 1975 is an example. After giving birth to a child, a pregnant woman died of amniotic fluid embolism, and her husband Stephen was raised alone. He wanted to apply for a single-parent family social security fund, but was told: "Mother's Security Fund", men cannot apply.

她在1975年参加的斯蒂芬·维森菲尔德(Stephen Wiesenfeld)案就是一个例子。在生完孩子之后,一名孕妇死于羊水栓塞,丈夫斯蒂芬独自一人抚养长大。他想申请单亲家庭社会保障基金,但被告知:“母亲的保障基金”,男人不能申请。

Ginsberg felt that this was gender discrimination, and through a lot of efforts, he helped this man get subsidies and also repealed this law.

金斯伯格认为这是性别歧视,并且通过大量的努力,他帮助这个人获得了补贴,并且废除了这项法律。

So to be precise, Ginsberg is a gender affirmative. As she herself said: "Women and men can only be liberated at the same time." However, in her active years, women's rights and interests were mostly damaged, and she became a "feminist."

确切地说,金斯伯格是性别平等主义者。正如她本人所说:“男女只能同时解放。”然而,在她活跃的几年里,妇女的权益大多受到损害,她成为了“女权主义者”。

In the 1960s and 1970s, when the affirmative movement was raging, liberal judges such as Ginsberg were the mainstream, but by 1993 when Clinton nominated her as a judge, the American mood had already turned.

在1960年代和1970年代,当平权运动肆虐时,金斯伯格(Ginsberg)等自由派法官成为主流,但是到了1993年,克林顿提名她为法官时,美国人的心情已经转变。

For the next two decades, the conservatives of the Supreme Court have always been in the majority, and she therefore appeared alternative and lonely.

在接下来的二十年中,最高法院的保守派一直占多数,因此她显得另类而孤独。

In the Trump era, the conservative atmosphere in the United States reached its peak, and she was even more incompatible with the trend of the times. Coupled with being too old, they are often questioned,

在特朗普时代,美国的保守主义气氛达到顶峰,她甚至与时代潮流格格不入。再加上年龄太大,他们经常会受到质疑,

She despised Trump, broke the Supreme Law’s tradition of non-interference in politics, and directly scolded him

她鄙视特朗普,打破了最高法的不干涉政治传统,并直接责骂他

Her straightforward personality, coupled with avant-garde actions such as senior fitness and hosting same-sex marriages, has made her frequently listed on social media hot search lists. Before her death, she was already a popular idol, incarnation of emoticons and cartoon symbols, printed on mugs and T-shirts, and tattooed on young people.

她直率的性格,加上前卫的举动,例如高级健身和主持同性婚姻,使她经常出现在社交媒体的热门搜索列表中。在她去世之前,她已经是一个受欢迎的偶像,表情符号和卡通符号的化身,印在杯子和T恤上,并刻在年轻人身上。

As a result, she gained a strong Internet nickname:

结果,她获得了一个强大的Internet昵称:

Ginsberg was born in Brooklyn, a poor district in New York. His father was a fur dealer, the first generation of immigrants came from Odessa, Ukraine, and his mother was the second generation.

金斯伯格出生在纽约的一个贫困地区布鲁克林。他的父亲是一家皮草商人,第一代移民来自乌克兰的敖德萨,而他的母亲则是第二代。

Neither of her parents had a college education, but she taught her to fight for her ideals and told her how important learning and education are.

她的父母都没有大学学历,但是她教她为自己的理想而奋斗,并告诉她学习和教育的重要性。

When he was a child, Ginsberg, like a boy, jumped from roof to roof and never participated in girls' gossip.

金斯伯格(Ginsberg)小时候像个男孩一样,从一个屋顶跳到另一个屋顶,从未参加过女孩的八卦。

At the age of 17, her mother died of cancer the day before the high school graduation ceremony. Ginsberg said that her mother taught her two "courses":

高中毕业典礼前一天,她17岁的母亲因癌症去世。金斯伯格说,她的母亲教了她两门“课程”:

The former means don’t let unnecessary negative emotions occupy your mind; the latter means that it’s good to meet Prince Charming for a lifetime, but you must learn to live independently if you don’t.

前者意味着不要让不必要的负面情绪占据您的头脑;后者意味着结识白马王子一辈子是件好事,但如果没有,就必须学会独立生活。

She was admitted to Cornell University and met her future husband Martin Ginsberg. In 1954, the two got married.

她被康奈尔大学录取,并结识了未来的丈夫马丁·金斯伯格。 1954年,两人结婚。

Martin has greatly helped Ginsburg's career.

马丁极大地帮助了金斯堡的事业。

In the 1950s, there were very few women going to college, and Cornell considered a more open school, and the ratio of boys to girls was only 4:1.

在1950年代,上大学的妇女很少,康奈尔大学认为这是一所更开放的学校,男女比例仅为4:1。

Someone laughed and said: If you have a daughter, you'd better send it to Cornell to study. If she can't find a love partner there, there will be no hope afterwards.

有人笑着说:如果你有一个女儿,最好把它寄给康奈尔大学读书。如果她在那里找不到爱人,那以后就没有希望了。

There are many boys dating Ginsberg, but Martin is the first boy who likes her cute appearance and admires her knowledge.

有许多男孩与金斯伯格约会,但马丁是第一个喜欢她可爱的外表并钦佩她的知识的男孩。

Martin is outgoing, social, good at cooking, and full of humor. On the contrary, Xiaojin is quiet, shy, and rarely communicates with others.

马丁外向,社交,擅长烹饪并且充满幽默感。相反,小金安静,害羞,很少与他人交流。

In 1993, to help his wife compete for Supreme Court justice, Martin made a long list and worked tirelessly to visit one by one. As the "man behind a successful woman", he is very competent.

1993年,为了帮助他的妻子争夺最高法院大法官,马丁列了一个很长的名单,并孜孜不倦地逐一探访。作为“成功女人背后的男人”,他非常能干。

But in the first few years after graduation, Ginsberg was more difficult for the two couples.

但是在毕业后的头几年,金斯伯格对两对夫妻来说更加困难。

At that time Martin went to serve as a soldier, during which Xiaojin took the children while studying. After her husband retired, the couple was admitted to Harvard Law School.

当时马丁去当兵了,在那期间小金带着孩子们学习。丈夫退休后,这对夫妇被哈佛大学法学院录取。

Overcoming gender discrimination and family burdens, Xiaojin was elected editor of Harvard Law Review (Obama served as editor-in-chief) by virtue of his excellent results. It is not easy to be this legal editor. 530-540 law school students will have the opportunity to rank in the top 25.

克服性别歧视和家庭​​负担,小金凭借出色的表现当选为《哈佛法律评论》(奥巴马担任主编)的编辑。成为这个法律编辑者并不容易。 530-540名法学院学生将有机会进入前25名。

You know, it wasn't until the early 1950s that Harvard Law School had women enrolled in it. At that time, women accounted for only 2%. When Xiaojin enrolled, there were only 9 girls out of more than 500 classmates at the same level. Women are not allowed to enter the library to read materials, and even the dean of the law school did not consciously show machismo. At a party, she even asked the female classmates present:

您知道,直到1950年代初,哈佛法学院才招收女性。当时,女性仅占2%。当小金入学时,同级别的500多名同学中只有9个女孩。妇女被禁止进入图书馆阅读材料,甚至法学院的院长也没有自觉地表现出男子气概。在聚会上,她甚至问在场的女同学:

During this period, Martin suffered from testicular cancer. While taking care of her husband and young daughter, Ginsberg transferred to Columbia University Law School for further studies.

在此期间,马丁患有睾丸癌。金斯伯格在照顾丈夫和年幼的女儿的同时,转到哥伦比亚大学法学院进修。

In the new school, Xiaojin, who was overwhelmed by life, could continue to serve as a legal review editor. In 1959, he graduated with the first grade in the class.

在新学校里,生活不堪重负的小金可以继续担任法律评论编辑。 1959年,他以一年级的成绩毕业。

But in the late 1950s, when she graduated to find a job, no law firm wanted to hire such an outstanding woman. Even if she moved out of the editor's resume of the Harvard Law Review, no one would accept it, just because she was a woman.

但是在1950年代后期,当她毕业找到工作时,没有一家律师事务所愿意雇用这样一位杰出的女性。即使她退出了《哈佛法律评论》的编辑履历,也没有人会因为她是女性而接受它。

A Columbia University admired his professor, and in order to force the Federal Law Judge Edward Palmyrie to hire her, he had to say something harsh, "If you don’t give Ginsberg a chance, I will never recommend any Columbia University to you. graduate".

哥伦比亚大学钦佩他的教授,为了迫使联邦法律法官爱德华·帕尔米里(Edward Palmyrie)雇用她,他不得不说些苛刻的话:“如果您不给金斯伯格一个机会,我永远不会向您推荐任何哥伦比亚大学。毕业”。

Later, I finally got a job and was fired because of pregnancy.

后来,我终于找到了工作,并因怀孕而被解雇。

All sorts of strange encounters made Ginsberg set his ambition:

种种奇怪的相遇使金斯伯格设定了他的野心:

The Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States has so far only four women, namely O'Connor, Ginsberg, Sotomeyer and Kagan (the latter two are nominated by Obama).

迄今为止,美国最高法院的大法官只有四名妇女,分别是奥康纳,金斯伯格,索托迈耶和卡根(后者由奥巴马提名)。

But it was such a future justice who couldn't even find a job at the beginning of graduation.

但是正是这样一个未来的正义者,甚至在毕业之初都找不到工作。

After untold hardships, Ginsberg finally found a faculty position at Rutgers University in 1963 to engage in academic research. She opened a course called "Gender and Law". Because of his outstanding work, in 1969, he was awarded the tenure of the school.

经过无数艰辛的努力,金斯伯格终于在1963年在罗格斯大学(Rutgers University)担任教职,从事学术研究。她开设了一个名为“性别与法律”的课程。由于他出色的工作,他于1969年被授予学校任职期。

Since then, she has begun to deal with female discrimination cases, hoping to promote changes in national laws through individual cases.

从那以后,她开始处理女性歧视案件,希望通过个人案件促进国家法律的变化。

In the 1960s when Ginsburg first came out to work, American laws were full of clauses that discriminated against women.

在1960年代,当金斯堡(Ginsburg)首次上班时,美国法律充斥着歧视妇女的条款。

For example, the husband is the owner of the family, and the male lead decides the home address. In 1973, most state laws even allowed employers to dismiss women on the grounds of pregnancy. Women need their husbands to sign for credit. There are also 12 state laws.

例如,丈夫是家庭的所有者,而男方负责确定家庭住址。 1973年,大多数州法律甚至允许雇主以怀孕为由解雇妇女。妇女需要丈夫签字才能获得信贷。还有12项州法律。

The 1960s and 1970s were the golden age of American liberals. In terms of the legal system, the high court where Earl Warren is the chief justice can also be regarded as a pioneer of freedom. But there is an exception in one area, that is, women's rights, and the Warren Court is not "free".

1960年代和1970年代是美国自由主义者的黄金时代。在法律制度方面,伯爵·沃伦(Earl Warren)为首席大法官的高等法院也可以被视为自由的先锋。但是有一个例外,那就是妇女权利,沃伦法院不是“自由的”。

For example, the Florida legislation in 1961 stipulated that participation in the jury was only a male obligation, not female citizens. According to the Supreme Court justices, this is "caring for" women because "women are the center of family life."

例如,1961年的佛罗里达州立法规定,参加陪审团仅是男性义务,而不是女性公民。根据最高法院的大法官,这是“照顾”妇女的原因,因为“妇女是家庭生活的中心”。

But Ginsberg did not think so, and felt that this was discrimination against women and treated them differently.

但是金斯伯格并不这样认为,并认为这是对妇女的歧视,因此对待她们有所不同。

In the "Reed case" in 1971, she wrote a wonderful defense for the same thing:

在1971年的“里德案”中,她为同一件事写了出色的辩护:

Male justices who discriminate against women are not aware of discrimination. On the contrary, they believe in "protecting women." This adds intangible difficulty to overturning this kind of law.

歧视妇女的男性大法官不了解歧视。相反,他们相信“保护妇女”。这给推翻这种法律增加了无形的困难。

In fact, until he became a justice, Ginsberg often disagreed with some male colleagues who played "good men".

实际上,金斯伯格(Ginsberg)直到他成为大法官之前,都常常不同意扮演“好男人”的男同事。

In the final analysis, what Ginsberg has to fight in his lifetime is to fight against unconscious sex discrimination, in addition to the legal provisions that maliciously discriminate against women.

归根结底,金斯伯格一生必须抗击的是打击无意识的性别歧视,以及恶意歧视妇女的法律规定。

The provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution stipulate that "no state can deny that everyone has the equal right to legal protection."

美国宪法第十四修正案的规定规定:“任何国家都不能否认每个人都享有平等的法律保护权。”

This amendment advocates equality for all, but in fact it mainly targets

该修正案主张人人平等,但实际上它主要针对

Before serving as a justice, the only thing Ginsberg did was to constantly tell the nine male justices in the Supreme Court that this amendment not only applies to racial discrimination, but also to gender discrimination.

在担任大法官之前,金斯伯格唯一要做的就是不断地告诉最高法院的九名男大法官,这项修正案不仅适用于种族歧视,而且适用于性别歧视。

For a weak woman who can hardly find a job, how can we wake up the Supreme Court, which is in power, to attach importance to sex discrimination?

对于一个几乎找不到工作的软弱的女人,我们如何唤醒当权的最高法院,重视性别歧视?

The method Ginsberg chose is to fight one lawsuit one by one, starting from the most typical cases, persevering, and pushing qualitative changes through quantitative changes, and slowly overturning the stubborn edifice of sexism. That is what Zeng Guofan said:

金斯伯格选择的方法是,从最典型的案件开始,一劳永逸地进行诉讼,坚持不懈,通过数量变化推动质变,并逐渐推翻顽固的性别歧视。曾国藩就是这样说的:

The cases she chose may not be major ones, but they are all sufficiently representative. The first case she handled to appeal to the High Court was the Sally Reid case in 1967.

她选择的案件可能不是重大案件,但都具有足够的代表性。她处理的向高等法院上诉的第一个案件是1967年的Sally Reid案。

Sally is a single mother living in Idaho, and her teenage son Skip is disabled. On March 29, 1967, Skip went to visit his father Sisle and shot himself.

萨莉(Sally)是爱达荷州的单身母亲,十几岁的儿子Skip被禁用。 1967年3月29日,Skip去探望父亲西斯勒并开枪自杀。

Painful Sally, unable to understand why her son committed suicide. When Fusesier was rushing to apply for the insurance payment for her son, she began to have doubts.

痛苦的莎亚博棋牌有保障莉,无法理解儿子为何自杀。当Fusesier急于为儿子申请保险付款时,她开始产生怀疑。

Sally's application should be made by herself, not Sisle, as the administrator of her son's insurance. But the Idaho court rejected her application on the grounds that the state law has long stipulated that such disputes are "male priority, not female."

Sally的申请应该由她自己而不是Sisle提出,作为她儿子的保险的管理人。但是爱达荷州法院驳回了她的申请,理由是该州法律早就规定此类纠纷是“男性优先,而不是女性”。

The case reached the Supreme Court. Ginsberg voluntarily asked to write a brief for the case.

该案已提交最高法院。金斯伯格自愿要求为该案写摘要。

She wrote in the abstract: "Women have complete citizenship rights, and are eligible for the rights to life and freedom guaranteed by law, as well as equal legal protection."

她摘要写道:“妇女拥有完整的公民权,并有资格获得法律保障的生命和自由权以及平等的法律保护。”

In the end, all judges of the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the Idaho law violated Article 14 of the Constitution.

最后,最高法院的所有法官均一致裁定爱达荷州法律违反了《宪法》第十四条。

Since this case, the Supreme Court has finally admitted that gender discrimination is as unconstitutional as racial discrimination. This case completely reversed the Supreme Court’s arrogant attitude towards gender discrimination.

自此案以来,最高法院终于承认性别歧视与种族歧视一样违宪。此案完全扭转了最高法院对性别歧视的傲慢态度。

The Sally case was just the beginning. Since then, Ginsberg has dealt with a series of government regulations suspected of sex discrimination. For example, the Wiesenfeld case we mentioned earlier.

萨利案只是个开始。从那以后,金斯伯格处理了一系列涉嫌性别歧视的政府法规。例如,我们前面提到的Wiesenfeld案。

After accumulating enough cases of this kind, in the 1980s, Ginsberg had a bold idea, hoping to package up the sex discrimination cases he had handled before and pass the "Equal Rights Amendment." Unfortunately, this amendment was not passed like the amendment prohibiting racial discrimination.

在积累了足够多的此类案件之后,金斯伯格在1980年代有了一个大胆的想法,希望整理他以前处理过的性别歧视案件,并通过《平等权利修正案》。不幸的是,该修正案没有像禁止种族歧视的修正案那样获得通过。

However, despite the lack of this "final blow", her years of hard work have actually made legislators and the whole society realize that no sex discrimination law can be enacted anymore.

然而,尽管缺乏这种“最后的打击”,但她多年的辛勤工作实际上使立法者和整个社会意识到不再能够颁布性别歧视法。

During this passionate years of struggle, her personal status has also advanced by leaps and bounds.

在这充满激情的奋斗岁月中,她的个人地位也得到了突飞猛进的发展。

In 1972, she became the first woman to earn a tenured faculty at Columbia Law School. In the same year, she became the first director of the ACLU Women's Rights Project (Women's Rights Project).

1972年,她成为哥伦比亚法学院终身教职的第一位女性。同年,她成为了美国公民自由协会妇女权利项目(妇女权利项目)的第一任主任。

In 1980, appointed by President Jimmy Carter, she became a judge of the District of Columbia Circuit Court for 13 years.

1980年,由总统吉米·卡特(Jimmy Carter)任命,她担任哥伦比亚特区巡回法院法官13年。

In 1970, the wind of freedom in the United States was gaining momentum. Two young feminist lawyers Widington and Coffey had a whim and prepared to challenge the anti-abortion regulations in Dallas, Texas.

1970年,美国的自由之风越来越流行。两名年轻的女权主义律师维丁顿和科菲心血来潮,准备挑战德克萨斯州达拉斯的反堕胎法规。

They carefully identified a pregnant woman who wanted an abortion to be the accuser. The pregnant woman's name was Mai Kangwei. She was 21 years old at the time. She was unmarried and had an unexpected pregnancy. She was in a difficult situation and had no money to go to a state where abortion was legalized for surgery.

他们仔细确定了一名孕妇,她希望通过人工流产成为原告。孕妇的名字叫麦康威。当时她21岁。她未婚,意外怀孕。她处境艰难,没有钱去人工流产合法化的州。

In March of this year, McCormick changed his name to Roy and sued Dallas City Attorney Wade, accusing the Texas anti-abortion law as unconstitutional. The case was tried for several years, and after many setbacks, it finally appealed to the Supreme Court.

今年三月,麦考密克更名为罗伊(Roy),并起诉达拉斯市检察官韦德(Dades City Attorney Wade),指控德州反堕胎法违宪。该案已审理了几年,在经历了许多挫折之后,终于向最高法院提出上诉。

On January 22, 1973, nine justices of the Supreme Court passed a ruling on the legalization of abortion by a vote of 7 to 2:

1973年1月22日,最高法院的9名法官以7票对2票对2票通过了一项关于堕胎合法化的裁决:

From the moment the verdict came into effect, conservatives have repeatedly called for the verdict to be overturned and a total ban on abortion. Whether to agree with the legalization of abortion has become one of the core issues in the dispute between the left and right camps, and it is also a sign of whether a person is free or conservative.

从判决生效之日起,保守派就一再呼吁推翻该判决,并全面禁止堕胎。是否同意堕胎合法化已经成为左右两个阵营之间争端的核心问题之一,这也是一个人是自由还是保守的标志。

In recent years, with conservative religious forces gaining power, anti-abortion voices have become louder.

近年来,随着保守的宗教势力获得控制权,反堕胎的声音越来越大。

Especially after Trump came to power, the "Pro-life" anti-abortion camp became vigorous. Alabama and Louisiana successively passed laws prohibiting female abortion, and they did not exclude special cases such as rape and incest leading to pregnancy. Happening.

特别是在特朗普上台之后,“赞成生命”反堕胎阵营变得异常活跃。阿拉巴马州和路易斯安那州先后通过了禁止女性流产的法律,并且没有排除强奸和乱伦导致怀孕的特殊情况。发生了

Since 2019, 15 states in the United States have proposed the Heartbeat Act, which stipulates that

自2019年以来,美国有15个州提出了《心跳法》,其中规定:

The problem is that within 6 weeks of pregnancy, many women cannot be sure whether they are pregnant or not, and may miss the abortion period. But the conservatives don’t care about this. At present, six states, including Alabama, Georgia, Ohio, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, and North Dakota, have passed strict anti-abortion laws.

问题是,在怀孕6周之内,许多妇女不能确定自己是否怀孕,并可能错过流产期。但是保守派对此并不关心。目前,包括阿拉巴马州,乔治亚州,俄亥俄州,阿肯色州,肯塔基州,密西西比州和北达科他州在内的六个州已经通过了严格的反堕胎法律。

Ginsberg unswervingly supports women's voluntary abortion rights.

金斯伯格坚定地支持妇女的自愿堕胎权。

However, as a prudent judge, she did not fully agree with the 1973 Supreme Court's decision in the "Roe v. Wade" case. In her view, it is true to agree with women's abortion, but too general and non-targeted judgments can easily lead to organized resistance from conservatives, which is not conducive to step-by-step protection of women's abortion rights.

但是,作为审慎的法官,她并不完全同意1973年最高法院在“罗诉韦德案”中的裁决。她认为,确实同意妇女的堕胎,但是过于笼统和非针对性的判决很容易导致保守派的有组织的抵抗,这不利于逐步保护妇女的堕胎权。

It is this prudence that makes her opinions more professional and convincing.

正是这种审慎使她的意见更加专业和令人信服。

When she was nominated as a Supreme Court judge in 1993, a reporter asked her how she viewed her right to female abortion. Her answer was clear and powerful:

当她在1993年被提名为最高法院法官时,记者问她如何看待自己的女性堕胎权。她的回答是明确而有力的:

In 2013, a private company opposed the mandatory application of the Affordable Health Insurance Act for violating the Religious Freedom Act and the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The company believes that four of the 20 contraceptive insurances provided to female employees under the law are inconsistent with religious beliefs.

2013年,一家私营公司反对强制执行《经济适用健康保险法》,因为该法违反了《宗教自由法》和《美国宪法》的第一修正案。该公司认为,根据法律向女性雇员提供的20种避孕保险中有4种与宗教信仰不符。

To this end, Ginsberg published a 35-page "dissent", firmly defending women's rights and opposing deprivation of women's right to abortion.

为此,金斯伯格发表了长达35页的“异议”,坚决捍卫妇女权利并反对剥夺妇女堕胎权。

Her reasoning is as always, "This is to deprive women of equal rights. The right to abortion balances the autonomy of women throughout their lives. It balances her relationship with men, society and the country as an independent, self-reliant, and equal citizen."

她的理由一如既往:“这是在剥夺妇女的平等权利。堕胎权平衡了妇女一生的自主权。它以独立,自力更生和平等的方式平衡了她与男人,社会和国家的关系。公民。”

From young to old, Ginsberg has always adhered to the bottom line of American liberals unwaveringly.

从年轻到老年,金斯伯格始终坚定地坚持美国自由派的基本立场。

But with Ginsburg’s death, conservatives may have the upper hand, sensitive abortion rights issues are facing the risk of turning right, and women’s abortion rights may be banned.

但是随着金斯堡(Ginsburg)的去世,保守派可能会占上风,敏感的堕胎权问题正面临转向的风险,女性的堕胎权可能会被禁止。

The prohibition of women’s abortion rights is a trivial matter. The more serious consequence is that right-wing conservative forces will become more polarized and excited.

禁止妇女堕胎权是一件小事。更严重的后果是右翼保守势力将变得更加两极分化和兴奋。

In this way, the three powers of the Supreme Court, the President and the Congress may all be biased towards the right.

这样,最高法院,总统和国会的三权都可能偏向于权利。

The latest news is that Trump will nominate Amy Coney Barrett as a Supreme Court judge. Barrett is 48 years old and a strict conservative. On issues of immigration, health care, and gay rights, they are completely opposite to liberals. He is likely to vote to pass the anti-abortion bill.

最新消息是,特朗普将提名艾米·科尼·巴雷特为最高法院法官。 Barrett今年48岁,严格保守。在移民,医疗保健和同性恋权利等问题上,它们与自由主义者完全相反。他可能会投票通过反堕胎法案。

In 2017, Trump nominated conservative Neil Gorsuch as the Supreme Court justice. In 2018, he nominated another conservative Brett Kavanaugh as the Supreme Court justice.

2017年,特朗普提名保守派尼尔·戈拉奇(Neil Gorsuch)为最高法院法官。 2018年,他提名另一位保守派布雷特·卡瓦诺(Brett Kavanaugh)作为最高法院大法官。

In particular, the appointment of Gorsuch broke the tradition of "appointing a justice requires at least 60 votes to pass" for the first time. At that time, Senator Republican leader McConnell triggered the "nuclear procedure", changed the rules of procedure, and passed the appointment with a simple majority.

特别是,戈索奇(Gorsuch)的任命首次打破了“任命法官至少需要60票才能通过”的传统。当时,共和党参议员麦康奈尔触发了“核程序”,改变了程序规则,并以简单多数通过了任命。

For this kind of action that is not in line with political practice, Senate Democratic leader Chuck Schumer said: "Decades later, we will sadly look back on today and find that this day we have changed the history of the Senate and the Supreme Court." Until today. , The Democratic Party is still brooding over this matter.

对于这种与政治实践不符的行动,参议院民主党领导人查克·舒默说:“几十年后,我们将遗憾地回顾今天,发现今天我们改变了参议院和最高法院的历史。 ”直到今天。 ,民主党仍在思考此事。

It can be seen from this that every time Trump nominates a justice, it is mixed with fierce party struggles. It can also be seen that the US imperialism is torn apart at this time.

由此可以看出,特朗普每次提名法官时,都充满了激烈的政党斗争。也可以看出,此时美帝国主义已四分五裂。

The death of Ginsburg will only further aggravate the struggle and tear between the two parties.

金斯堡的去世只会进一步加剧两党之间的斗争和眼泪。

Of course, to come back, in history, it is also common for American justices to "turn their faces and deny others." A conservative president nominates a conservative judge, but within a few years, even as soon as he takes office, the judge may change his position and become a liberal.

当然,要回到历史上来,美国大法官也常常“转过脸,否认他人”。一位保守派总统提名一位保守派法官,但几年之内,即使他一上任,法官也可能会改变立场,成为一名自由派。

For example, in 1953, President Eisenhower’s appointment of Earl Warren. Warren was considered a staunch conservative judge at the time, but he did not expect that Warren led the freedom wave in the 1960s and 1970s (except for women's rights). Afterwards, Eisenhower shouted deceived, thinking that the nomination of Warren was "the stupidest mistake he made in his life."

例如,1953年,艾森豪威尔总统任命伯爵·沃伦。沃伦当时被认为是一位坚定的保守派法官,但他并不希望沃伦在1960年代和1970年代领导自由浪潮(妇女权利除外)。随后,艾森豪威尔大喊欺骗,以为沃伦的提名是“他一生中最愚蠢的错误”。

Justice Holmes, nominated by Theodore Roosevelt, was also a little bit "disobedient", so much so that the old Roosevelt complained: "Even if I take a banana to a judge, I am more spine than this kid!"

由西奥多·罗斯福(Theodore Roosevelt)提名的福尔摩斯大法官也有点“不听话”,以至于老罗斯福抱怨道:“即使我带一根香蕉给法官,我比这个孩子还更脊柱!”

The "renegade" of judges is related to the high degree of independence of the U.S. High Court and also to the term of office of judges being much longer than that of the president. Once the judge is confirmed, he cannot be replaced at will. Of course, he does not need to be "too obedient." Time changes and changes are normal.

法官的“叛变”与美国高等法院的高度独立性有关,也与法官的任期比总统的任期长得多有关。法官一旦确认,便不能随意替换。当然,他不需要“太听话”。时间变化和变化是正常的。

Furthermore, Barrett, nominated by Trump, may not be able to pass the Senate vote for confirmation. At present, the Republican Party has a 53:47 ratio in the Senate, but two Republican lawmakers have publicly expressed their opposition to naming a new judge before the general election. This adds uncertainty to the smooth passage of the nomination.

此外,特朗普提名的巴雷特可能无法通过参议院投票进行确认。目前,共和党在参议院的比例为53:47,但两名共和党议员已公开表示反对在大选前任命新法官。这给提名的顺利通过增加了不确定性。

Therefore, whether Ginsburg's death, the United States High Court, and even the influence of the High Court, will truly right-wing the entire political system is still difficult to conclude.

因此,金斯堡的去世,美国高等法院,甚至是高等法院的影响,是否将真正使整个政治体系右翼化,仍然很难下定论。

In fact, what really needs to worry about is not the justice's left-right imbalance, but whether the imbalance can be quickly corrected.

实际上,真正需要担心的不是法官的左右不平衡,而是是否可以迅速纠正这种不平衡。

The United States has always been a country that controls each other's blogs. The short-term imbalance has never been a big problem. In the 1960s and 1980s, the freedom trend surged forward, but correspondingly, conservative forces also secretly accumulated their strength. Take the abortion bill as an example. After experiencing rapid liberalization in the 1970s, the state capitals in the central and southern regions have seen a "retro" phenomenon in recent years to counteract the previous surge.

美国一直是控制彼此博客的国家。短期失衡从来不是一个大问题。在1960年代和1980年代,自由趋势迅猛发展,但相应地,保守势力也秘密地积累了力量。以堕胎法案为例。在1970年代经历了迅速的自由化之后,中部和南部地区的州首府近年来出现了“复古”现象,以抵消之前的猛增。

In October 2018, the Pew Research Center in the United States released a survey report that the factors that affect people's support for abortion are not gender or class status, but religion and political party.

2018年10月,美国皮尤研究中心发布了一份调查报告,表明影响人们支持堕胎的因素不是性别或阶级地位,而是宗教和政党。

59% of Republicans agree that abortion is prohibited, and 76% of Democrats agree that abortion is legal. Among the mainstream Protestants in the United States, 61% of white Protestant evangelicals are staunch anti-abortionists. In contrast, 67% of mainstream white Protestants believe that abortion is legal, and 74% of non-religious people agree that abortion is legal.

59%的共和党人同意禁止堕胎,而76%的民主党人则认为堕胎是合法的。在美国主流新教徒中,有61%的白人新教福音派是坚定的反堕胎主义者。相比之下,有67%的主流白人新教徒认为堕胎是合法的,而74%的非宗教人士则认为堕胎是合法的。

The United States is an extremely secular country, and the 1787 Constitutional Convention also clarified the tradition of "separation of church and state." But the paradox is that the United States is also a country with a very developed religious tradition.

美国是一个世俗化的国家,1787年的《制宪会议》也阐明了“政教分离”的传统。但自相矛盾的是,美国也是一个有着非常发达的宗教传统的国家。

Currently, 70.6% of American believers believe in Christianity, and Protestants account for 40% of the total population of the United States. The proportion of the population claiming to be religious in the United States is much higher than that of the same developed capitalist countries. Only 46% in Canada claim to be religious, 37% in France and 29% in Sweden, but more than 60% in the United States.

目前,有70.6%的美国信徒信仰基督教,新教徒占美国总人口的40%。在美国,自称是宗教的人口比例比那些发达的资本主义国家高得多。在加拿大,只有46%的人声称是宗教信仰,在法国为37%,在瑞典为29%,但在美国超过60%。

In the tradition of "separation of church and state," religious groups in the United States are a bit like pyramid schemes, competing with each other and offering "faith packages" to the public to attract more private funding.

按照“亚博棋牌娱乐政教分离”的传统,美国的宗教团体有点像金字塔计划,相互竞争,并向公众提供“宗教一揽子计划”以吸引更多私人资金。

This camp mainly grew up in the progressivism of 1900 and the civil rights movement of 1960. They support abortion, believe in science, are supporters of the Democratic Party, and belong to the left.

这个阵营主要在1900年的进步主义和1960年的民权运动中成长。他们支持堕胎,相信科学,是民主党的支持者,属于左派。

But as we mentioned earlier, the leftists' radical support for women's abortion rights, an extremely sensitive issue in religion, has greatly stimulated the resistance and grouping of conservative Christians.

但是,正如我们前面提到的,左派对妇女堕胎权的根本支持,这是宗教上极为敏感的问题,极大地激发了保守派基督徒的抵抗和团结。

In fact, it was the anti-patriarchal, anti-Vietnam, anti-system, and radical left wing that advocated sexual freedom in the civil rights movement in the 1960s that ignited the sense of crisis and enthusiasm for the ultra-conservative right.

实际上,正是在1960年代民权运动中倡导性自由的反父权制,反越南制,反系统制和激进左翼组织激起了人们对超级保守权利的危机感和热情。

The enthusiasm of the civil rights movement extinguished, and the conservative right began to rise. The first to recognize and use this force was the Republican president in 1980.

民权运动的热情消失了,保守的权利开始兴起。 1980年,共和党总统率先承认并使用了这支部队。

In the Bush era, the conservative right has become the most important supporting force of the Republican Party. The conservative Christian League once distributed 70 million "voter guides" across the country, publicly intervened in politics, and organized the congregation to support the equally conservative Bush.

在布什时代,保守的权利已成为共和党最重要的支持力量。保守的基督教联盟曾经在全国范围内分发了7000万“选民指南”,公开干预了政治,并组织了会众来支持同样保守的布什。

Bush Jr. took office and responded positively. His administration became more and more rightward, and he used religious language unscrupulously in public speeches. For example, he referred to Iraq, Iran and North Korea as "axis of evil."

小布什上任并作出积极回应。他的管理越来越右倾,他在公开演讲中不当地使用宗教语言。例如,他称伊拉克,伊朗和朝鲜为“邪恶轴心”。

When Trump came to power, he was even more unscrupulous.

特朗普上台时,他更加无良。

Conservatives are not scattered like the liberal left, they are extremely stable and united.

保守派不像自由主义者左派那样分散,他们非常稳定和团结。

Facing this conservative religious force, how should the Democratic Party respond? The trouble is here. Currently, the Democratic Party has no good countermeasures.

面对这种保守的宗教力量,民主党应如何应对?麻烦在这里。目前,民主党没有良好的对策。

In 2004, the concept of "religious left" appeared, but the left has always been disunited.

2004年,出现了“宗教左派”的概念,但左派一直分裂。

Conservative religions promote fear and division and gain "vertical users". Left-wing religions promote love and peace, and unity is not effective; conservative religions advocate following the teachings of the Bible, which is simple and rude, while left-wing religions persuade people to feel the diversity and complexity of modern society. The former is obvious It is more in line with the sense of security and belonging that modern people lack.

保守宗教加剧恐惧和分裂,并获得“垂直使用者”。左翼宗教促进了爱与和平,团结无效。保守宗教提倡遵循圣经的简单而粗鲁的教义,而左翼宗教则使人们感到现代社会的多样性和复杂性。前者是显而易见的。它更符合现代人缺乏的安全感和归属感。

The good news for the Democratic Party is that in recent years, the number of non-believers has grown rapidly, but the problem has arisen again. Relatively conservatives have a high desire to vote, and non-believers are generally politically apathetic and unwilling to vote.

对民主党来说,好消息是,近年来,非信徒人数迅速增加,但问题再次出现。相对保守的人有很高的投票意愿,非信徒一般在政治上冷漠,不愿投票。

In this way, in the future, where the right-wing religious forces in the United States will take the United States, it is really not optimistic.

这样,将来美国的右翼宗教势力将占领美国,这的确不容乐观。

The death of Ginsberg has added a thick haze to the political climate that is not optimistic.

金斯伯格(Ginsberg)的死给不乐观的政治气氛增添了阴霾。

She agrees that the overthrow of women’s abortion rights by the right is a trivial matter. What she fears most is that the correction mechanism for political imbalance in the United States will seriously fail because of her departure. The entire power system will slip into an extremely conservative mire and cannot extricate itself.

她同意,将妇女的堕胎权推翻是一件小事。她最担心的是,由于她的离职,美国政治失衡的纠正机制将严重失败。整个电力系统将陷入极为保守的泥潭,无法自拔。

Among the three powers in the United States, the role of the Supreme Court is a bit like a woodpecker. Based on the Constitution, it constantly picks up the mistakes of the President’s executive orders and laws made by Congress.

在美国的三个大国中,最高法院的作用有点像啄木鸟。根据宪法,它会不断发现总统制定的总统行政命令和国会法律中的错误。

But if the highest yard is on the wrong side, it's like woodpeckers picky eaters, because if they don't eat some kind of insects, the whole tree may be eaten away.

但是,如果最高的院子在错误的一侧,就像啄木鸟挑食,因为如果他们不吃某些昆虫,整棵树可能就被吃掉了。

If she retires during the presidency of Obama, she has a chance to maintain the balance of the Supreme Court. Because Obama and her are congenial, they are both affirmative, and he can nominate a successor to preserve the liberal legacy.

如果她在奥巴马总统任期内退休,她就有机会维持最高法院的平衡。因为奥巴马和她是友好的人,所以他们都是肯定的,而且他可以提名一个继任者来保留自由派的遗产。

This seems to show from one side that Ginsberg had no intention of mixing party politics. Many domestic legal experts also believe that she is just a pure judge and has nothing to do with her.

这似乎从一方面表明了金斯伯格无意混和政党政治。许多国内法律专家也认为她只是一个纯粹的法官,与她无关。

But the problem is that when Justice Kim handled the Ledbetter case in his later years, because he did not agree with the Supreme Court’s 5:4 voting decision, he voluntarily sought Congress to intervene to overturn the decision of her Supreme Court colleagues. In the end, the Democratic-controlled Congress at the time supported her idea, and then President Obama also signed the new law passed by Congress.

但是问题在于,金大法官在晚年处理Ledbetter案时,由于他不同意最高法院5:4的投票决定,他自愿寻求国会干预以推翻最高法院同事的决定。最后,当时由民主党控制的国会支持了她的想法,然后奥巴马总统也签署了国会通过的新法律。

In other words, she is very good at using the U.S. power check and balance mechanism. She also knows that law and politics cannot be completely separated.

换句话说,她非常擅长使用美国权力制衡机制。她还知道法律和政治不能完全分开。

Moreover, when answering the New Yorker author Jeffrey Toobin's question about retirement, she made it clear that the retirement of each high court judge is an important consideration for the party of the president.

此外,在回答《纽约客》作者杰弗里·图宾(Jeffrey Toobin)关于退休的问题时,她明确指出,每位高等法院法官的退休是总统政党的重要考虑因素。

The tragedy is that such a person who knows the pros and cons has died in the presidency of the most disgusting president. Sometimes I think about it, this may be the fate of a country. After all, no one can accurately predict when a person will die.

悲剧是这样一个知道自己的利弊的人已经在最令人作呕的总统职位上去世了。有时我会考虑,这可能是一个国家的命运。毕竟,没有人能准确预测一个人何时会死亡。

For China, the right-wing of the United States is by no means a good thing. In the 1950s, the result of America's extreme rightism was a big fight with China, and the two countries broke off for more than 20 years. If the United States turns to the right again today, the result may be equally tragic.

对于中国而言,美国的右翼绝不是一件好事。在1950年代,美国极端右倾的结果是与中国的一场大战,两国分手了20多年。如果美国今天再次向右转,其结果可能同样悲惨。

Back then, Japan was extremely right-handed and eccentric, and the main unlucky country was its neighbor-China. If the U.S. imperialism also moves toward extreme rightism this year, its main bearer will probably be its main competitor-China.

当时,日本是极为右撇子和古怪的,而最不幸的国家是其邻国中国。如果今年美国帝国主义也朝着极端右翼主义迈进,它的主要承担者将可能是其主要竞争对手中国。

In fact, looking at Ginsberg's life, I envy her life in my heart. Apart from busy work, her family life is very healthy and happy. She raised two children, a bunch of grandchildren, and her husband's marriage lasted 56 years until her husband died of cancer in 2010.

实际上,看着金斯伯格的一生,我心里羡慕她的一生。除了工作繁忙,她的家庭生活也非常健康和幸福。她抚养了两个孩子,一群孙子,丈夫的婚姻持续了56年,直到她的丈夫于2010年因癌症去世。

In June 2010, when the doctor told her husband Martin that they were helpless with his condition. This model husband wrote his wife the last short message of his life, including emotional sentences:

2010年6月,当医生告诉她的丈夫马丁时,他们对他的病情无奈。这位模范丈夫给妻子写了他一生中的最后一封短信,其中包括情感句子:

"My dearest Ruth, you are the only person I love in my life. Almost since the day when we first met at Cornell 56 years ago, I have always admired and loved you. I can see How lucky I am to walk you all the way to the highest peak in the legal world!"

“我最亲爱的露丝,你是我一生中唯一爱的人。自56年前我们第一次在康奈尔见面以来,我一直很钦佩和爱着你。我可以看到我很幸运能走遍所有通往法律界最高峰的方式!”

A person, for a lifetime, having such a love and running such a happy family is probably happier than any career success. This kind of life, such a stable family, can only emerge in a country that continues to prosper and stabilize.

一个有生之年,拥有如此幸福的家庭,拥有如此幸福的家庭的人可能比任何事业上的成功都要快乐。这样的生活,如此稳定的家庭,只能在一个继续繁荣和稳定的国家出现。

In fact, most ordinary Chinese people yearn for this kind of life. Wives and children are hot on the bed. They have no big ambitions. They are neither greedy nor snatching. It is okay to ask for a family’s health and peace, even if it’s plain. The so-called yearning for a better life is nothing more than that.

实际上,大多数普通中国人都渴望这种生活。妻子和孩子在床上烫。他们没有什么野心。他们既不贪婪也不抢夺。即使家庭平淡,也可以要求家人的健康与和平。所谓向往美好的生活,无非就是那件事。

In the past 40 years, the stable development of the country has provided countless ordinary Chinese with the conditions to create a better life. But to be honest, 40 years is really not enough, and a happy life is just a beginning.

在过去的40年中,国家的稳定发展为无数的普通华人提供了创造美好生活的条件。但是说实话,40年还远远不够,幸福的生活只是开始。

But for the past year or two, the domestic stability has remained stable, but the international environment has become turbulent. Suddenly, globalization is going backwards, trade barriers are increasing, and all kinds of frictions continue. The country that sees us as a competitor seems to be a sign of fever, and a neighboring country wants to show off its cannons and spears.

但是在过去的一两年中,国内稳定一直保持稳定,但国际环境却动荡不安。突然,全球化在倒退,贸易壁垒在增加,各种摩擦在继续。视我们为竞争对手的国家似乎是发烧的迹象,而邻国则想炫耀其大炮和长矛。

The tree wants to be quiet but the wind keeps on, it's not the tree's fault. Jackals come with shotguns, friends come with good wine, what we are defending is equal treatment between countries, and what we are guarding is only the ordinary days of wives and children.

树木想要安静,但是风一直在吹,这不是树木的错。狼配shot弹枪,朋友配上好酒,我们捍卫的是国家之间的平等待遇,而我们守护的只是妻子和孩子们的平凡日子。

If you are not crazy, I will not be devil, it's that simple.

如果您不疯狂,我就不会魔鬼,就是这么简单。

END

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